Born in the south of France on his father's estate in 1864, he was a member of one of the wealthiest families in France. Suffering from a genetic bone defect, he was unable to attend regular schools much of his life. At age thirteen he broke first one, then the other leg, stunting his growth for life. Turning to art to fill his time, he eventually ended up in Paris admid the likes of Degas and Van Gogh. But his first love was the Paris nightlife, though he combined this with his art, sketching nightly the performers at the famous Moulin Rouge. It was there he was commissioned to re-design a poster that would change his life. When Paris awoke one morning in the spring of 1891 to the presence of some 500 of his eye-catching, lithographic posters, the popularity of the club and the artist immediately soared. However, the posters quickly disappeared from the walls of the city, becoming instant collectors' items.
His posters made equally famous perfomers such as Jane Avril, May Milton, Aristide Bruant, and a dancer known only as La Goulue. His posters even made PATRONS of the nightspot famous, such as a tall, thin, law clerk named Valentin, whoes antics on the dance floor made him know as "Valentin the boneless". Every element of his posters was carefully planned, based upon detailed color sketches made at the club each night. His colors were bright, flat and striking, stopping just short of being gaudy. Many of his poster sketches he later developed into canvas paintings capturing the decadent glamour of the night while at the same time balancing it against the sad superficiality of the people of the night whom he came to know and love. Unfortunately, this swinging nightlife was responsible for wrecking his life as well. Because of his handicaps, alcholism, and the debaucherous life he led (he actually took up residence in a high-class Paris bordello), he died in 1901. He was 37.